English Grammar Notes PDF for Indian Airforce

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English Grammar Notes PDF for Indian Airforce

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1. Parts of Speech:

Noun: A person, place, thing, or idea (e.g., cat, city, love).
Verb: Describes an action or state (e.g., run, eat, is).
Adjective: Describes a noun (e.g., big, red, happy).
Adverb: Describes a verb, adjective, or other adverb (e.g., quickly, very, extremely).
Pronoun: Takes the place of a noun (e.g., he, she, they).
Preposition: Shows the relationship between a noun/pronoun and other words (e.g., on, in, under).
Conjunction: Joins words, phrases, or clauses (e.g., and, but, because).
Interjection: Expresses strong emotion (e.g., wow, ouch, hooray).

2. Sentence Structure:

A sentence typically consists of a subject (who or what the sentence is about) and a predicate (what the subject is doing or what is happening to it).
Sentences can be classified as simple, compound, complex, or compound-complex based on the number and type of clauses they contain.

3. Tenses:

Past, present, and future tenses indicate when an action occurs.
Each tense has various forms, including simple, continuous (progressive), perfect, and perfect continuous.

4. Subject-Verb Agreement:

Verbs must agree in number (singular or plural) with their subjects.
Singular subjects usually take singular verbs, and plural subjects usually take plural verbs.

5. Articles:

“A” and “an” are indefinite articles and are used before singular, countable nouns.
“The” is the definite article and is used before specific nouns that the reader/listener is familiar with.

6. Plurals:

Most nouns form plurals by adding “-s” to the singular form (e.g., cat/cats).
Some nouns change their spelling entirely (e.g., child/children).
Irregular plurals exist (e.g., man/men, woman/women).

7. Pronouns:

Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition.
Common pronouns include he, she, it, they, we, me, him, her, us, them.

8. Punctuation:

Period (.) ends a sentence.
Comma (,) separates items in a list, clauses, or phrases.
Apostrophe (‘) shows possession or contraction.
Quotation marks (” “) enclose direct speech or quotes.

9. Passive Voice:

In the passive voice, the subject receives the action rather than performing it.
It’s formed using a form of “to be” plus the past participle of the verb.

– Modal verbs like can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would indicate possibility, necessity, permission, etc.

10. Modal Verbs:

Remember that English grammar has many nuances and exceptions. Practice and exposure to the language are essential for improving your grammar skills.

The main tenses in English

Tense is a grammatical category that refers to the time frame in which a verb is used to describe an action or event. It is used to indicate the time of occurrence of an action or event in relation to the present moment.

The following are the main tenses in English:

Simple Present Tense: used to describe actions or events that occur regularly or habitually in the present. Example: She walks to the park every day.

Simple Past Tense: used to describe actions or events that occurred in the past and are now finished. Example: She walked to the park yesterday.

Simple Future Tense: used to describe actions or events that will occur in the future. Example: She will walk to the park tomorrow.

Present Continuous Tense: used to describe actions or events that are happening now or in the present. Example: She is walking to the park.

Past Continuous Tense: used to describe actions or events that were in progress in the past. Example: She was walking to the park.

Future Continuous Tense: used to describe actions or events that will be in progress in the future. Example: She will be walking to the park.

Present Perfect Tense: used to describe actions or events that have happened at an unspecified time before now. Example: She has walked to the park.

Past Perfect Tense: used to describe actions or events that were completed before a specific time in the past. Example: She had walked to the park before she went to work.

Future Perfect Tense: used to describe actions or events that will be completed before a specific time in the future. Example: She will have walked to the park by the time she goes to work.

Correct use of tense is important in conveying the time frame of an action or event, and helps to make writing or speech clear and concise.


Direct and Indirect are two ways of reporting speech or writing in English.

Direct speech: Direct speech is a way of reporting what someone said by using their exact words in quotation marks. Example: She said, “I am going to the park.”

Indirect speech: Indirect speech is a way of reporting what someone said without using their exact words. The sentence structure changes and the reporting verb is usually changed to reflect the change in tense. Example: She said that she was going to the park.

In indirect speech, the tense of the original statement may also change, as well as the use of pronouns and other words in the sentence. The use of indirect speech is often preferred in more formal or professional writing, as it can be less direct and more nuanced.

It is important to understand the difference between direct and indirect speech, as they are used in different contexts and for different purposes, and incorrect use can lead to confusion or miscommunication.

Active and passive voice are two ways of constructing sentences in English.

Active voice: In an active voice sentence, the subject of the sentence performs the action. Example: The dog bit the man.

Passive voice: In a passive voice sentence, the subject of the sentence receives the action. Example: The man was bitten by the dog.

In active voice sentences, the focus is on the action and the person or object performing the action. In passive voice sentences, the focus is on the person or object receiving the action.

The use of active and passive voice can affect the tone and emphasis of a sentence, and choosing the correct voice is important in conveying the intended meaning and in writing clear and concise sentences. In general, active voice is preferred in most forms of writing, as it is more direct and straightforward. Passive voice may be used in certain contexts, such as in scientific or technical writing, where the focus is on the result or outcome rather than the person performing the action.

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English Grammar Handwritten Notes Question Answer

Q1: To turn over a new leaf [Railways, 1995]

A) To change completely one’s course of action.

B) To shift attention to new problems after having studied the old ones thoroughly.

C) To cover up one’s fault by wearing new marks.

D) To change old habits and adopt new ones.


Q2: A fair crack of the whip

A) Severe punishment

B) A good luck check

C) A period of importance

D) Failure of administration


Q3: To talk one’s head off

A) To talk loudly

B) Talk in whispers

C) To talk to oneself

D) Talk excessively


Q4: To wrangle over an ass’s shadow [SBI PO 1984]

A) Act in a foolish way

B) To quarrel over trifles

C) Waste time on petty things

D) To do something funny.


Q5: To take it with a grain of salt

A) Take with some reservation

B) To take with total disbelief

C) Take wholeheartedly

D) To take seriously.


Q6: Hobson’s choice [Railways, 1991]

A) Feeling of insecurity

B) Accept or leave the offer

C) Feeling of strength

D) Excellent choice


Q7: To take the bull by the horns [Railways, 1995]

A) To punish a person severely for his arrogance.

B) To grapple courageously with a difficulty that lies in our way.

C) To handle it by a fierce attack.

D) To bypass the legal process and take action according to one’s own whims.

English grammar
(Source: oxforddictionaries.com)

Find Your Answers Here
Q1: (d), Q2: (c), Q3: (d), Q4: (b), Q5: (a), Q6: (b), Q7: (b)

Type II
Directions: I each of the following questions, four or five alternatives are given for the phrase in italics in the sentence. Choose the one which best expresses the meaning of the phrase in italics.

Q1: He has come up during the last five years. [Stenographer’s Exam, 1991]

A) fallen in rank

B) risen in status

C) become proud

D) become humble


Q2: After tolerating a lot of exploitation at the hands of the authorities they finally decided to stand up for their rights.

A) seize

B) enforce

C) negotiate

D) vindicate


Q3: The boss should not have called Arun names in front of others.

A) abused

B) summoned

C) scolded

D) praised


Q4: Last evening I was held up at the meeting. [NDA 1995]

A) kept

B) detained

C) stopped

D) delayed


Q5: I have a problem squaring up with the manager.

A) work out

B) consider

C) discuss

D) settle


Q6: Sachin is not cut out for this kind of work.

A) work out

B) consider

C) discuss

D) settle


Find Your Answers Here
Q1: (b), Q2: (d), Q3: (a), Q4: (b), Q5: (d), Q6: (c)

Type III:- Directions: In each of the following questions, a sentence has been given in Active (or Passive) Voice. Out of the four alternatives suggested select the one which best expresses the same sentence in Passive (or Active) voice.

Q1: Mona was writing a letter to her father.

A) A letter was written to her father by Mona.

B) A letter has been written to her father by Mona.

C) A letter was written by Mona to her father.

D) A letter was written by Mona to her father. [Stenographer’s Exam 1994]


Q2: He teaches us Grammar.

A) Grammar is taught to us by him.

B) We are being taught Grammar by him.

C) grammar is being taught to us by him.

D) We are taught Grammar by him.


Q3: Do you imitate others?

A) Are others imitated by you?

B) Are others being imitated by you?

C) Were others being imitated by you?

D) Have others been imitated by you? [Stenographer’s Exam, 1995]


Q4: I saw him conducting the rehearsal.

A) He was seen conducting the rehearsal.

B) I saw the rehearsal to be conducted by him.

C) He was seen by me to conduct the rehearsal.

D) I saw the rehearsal being conducted by him.


Q5: Has the box broken? [Clerk’s Grade, 1996]

A) Have the broken box. B) Break the box. C) Get someone to break the box. D) They have broken the box.

Find Your Answers Here
Q1: C), Q2: D), Q3: A), Q4: D), Q5: C).

 GK Notes PDF Download

English Grammar Notes PDF for Indian Airforce

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